Energetic efficiency

Basic Categories of Energy Efficient Houses

The relationship between man and the planet through climate change has become an increasingly topical issue in recent years, which is also process by architects through the topic of energy efficient buildings and their design. Preservation of the environment, improvement of comfort and reduction of energy consumption is achieved by improving the energy efficiency of the facility, by using naturally renewable resources, modern technologies, using advanced materials.

The use of naturally renewable resources and the prevention of heat loss is something that has long been known to mankind. Even in ancient times, was a problem of thermal comfort, for which the Greek philosopher Socrates explored the use of available energy as a solution. How to keep the heat in the building in winter without overheating during the summer was one of the main doubts when building a house at that time. “Socrates’ house” is one of the well-known concepts in the literature and represents a hypothetical description of an energy-efficient house. Observing the movement of the sun and the influence of the sun’s rays on the shape, form and construction of the house, Socrates based his studies. Based on that, the concept of the “Socratic house” was created, which is trapezoidal shape in shape and whose basis of the plan is oriented to the south. Since there was no thermal insulation at that time, the wall to the north was built massively so that there would be as little heat loss as possible during the winter period. On the south side there was also a eave whose function was to block the sun’s rays and additional overheating during the summer, but also to allow natural light to enter the house during the winter when the sun is lower. Today we can distinguish several types of energy efficient houses.


Basic types of energy efficient buildings:

  • Passive House
  • Low Energy House
  • Zero-energy House
  • Autonomous Building
  • Energy Plus House



Passive houses can be lived without traditional heating systems. These facilities consume very little energy and provide a high level of thermal comfort. They use energy sources located in the heating facility, such as the sun’s energy entering the facility, the user’s body heat, and the energy emitted by the devices. Huge energy savings in passive house buildings are achieved by using particularly energy efficient building components and a quality ventilation system.


This type of object uses less energy than ordinary objects. The low energy house has a high level of insulation and quality, energy efficient windows. Good thermal insulation helps reduce the amount of energy needed to heat and cool a building. In some cases, these facilities are equipped with solar collectors and sanitary hot water recycling equipment. Compared to the standards that vary in different countries, the definition and standard of a low energy house also differs.


Facilities that have zero energy consumption on an annual basis, as well as zero carbon dioxide emissions, are called zero energy facilities. These houses emit little greenhouse gases, so they are very suitable for the environment. Zero-energy house could be an independent facility, which means that it would not have to be constantly connected to the energy grid. In practice, this means that the consumed energy from the period connected to the grid would be returned to the grid when the facility would not be connected, ie when it would not take energy from the grid.


They are designed to function normally without infrastructure support and are completely independent. This means that autonomous facilities do not have connections to the networks for the distribution of electricity, water supply, sewerage, etc. With the help of renewable energy sources, by applying the appropriate technology and materials, an autonomous house suitable for the environment can be built.


Houses with excess energy are characterized by the possibility of producing more energy on average throughout the year using renewable energy sources compared to what they take from external systems. By using small electricity generators, passive solar systems, careful selection of location for the facility, as well as other factors that affect the choice and application of materials, it is possible to achieve the effect of excess energy.

Savings in design