Bioclimatic and Energy Efficient Architecture
It can be said that architecture arose from the human need for a place to live, it has developed over millennia through an artistic and technical form in which many different skills and technologies are combined. Residential architecture has become a part of everyday life, as well as a carrier of changes and novelties in architecture.
Climate change, global warming, population growth and the deficit of non-renewable energy sources are very important factors that should influence the choice of design and type of architecture. By improving the architecture and the desire to preserve the environment, by applying new methods, technologies and materials, a sustainable architecture has been developed that uses renewable energy sources and rationally consumes energy.It can be said that sustainable architecture, as well as sustainable development, meets the needs of present generations without compromising future generations to meet their own needs. As types of sustainable architecture, we can single out bioclimatic and energy efficient architecture.
Bioclimatic architecture is based on the integration of the facility into its environment, where it is important to explore the natural and created conditions of locations and their effects on the quality of life of people. It is very important not to disturb the ecological balance and to follow the energy flows and achieve ecological comfort when designing such facilities. The goal is to construct an envelope that, based on external location environmental conditions, provides quality microclimatic conditions of the internal environment.
Energy efficient architecture is synonymous with buildings that rationally consume energy with the help of technology, materials, design methods, etc. Smaller amounts of energy to do a job or certain activities are one of the indicators of energy efficiency. When we talk about energy efficient facilities, we mean facilities that consume less energy to meet living needs, such as maintaining a comfortable temperature, necessary lighting and other needs for people to stay and work indoors, without compromising comfort. Energy efficiency measures must not reduce the working and living conditions of people or disturb the feeling of comfort, although the first association with savings may be associated with renunciation. Energy efficient facilities include: Low Energy House, Passive House, Ultra-low Energy House, Zero-energy House or Net Zero Energy House, Autonomous Building – house with no bills and Energy Plus House.
Location and climatic conditions have a great influence on the design of bioclimatic and energy efficient architecture. During the design process, it is important to consider all factors that affect the design and environmental comfort, such as location, terrain configuration, orientation, wind exposure, vegetation, interrelationships of buildings, duration of the sunshine and clouds, humidity, precipitation, wind, etc. Using renewable energy sources, such as solar energy, wind, biomass, hydropower and geothermal energy, we can design facilities with passive systems that are important in preserving the environment. Also, active systems can be used in the design, which are equally important for energy savings, although they rely on the use of technology. These types of architecture contribute to reduce CO2 emissions, reduce the heat losses of the building while improving the thermal protection of external elements and increase the heat gains in the building by favorable orientation and use of solar energy.